# List of Symbols

The following notations and symbols will be used without defining them explicitly:
 union intersection subset of proper subset of belong(s) set of all positive integers set of all integers field of all real numbers field of all complex numbers field of real or complex numbers is defined by imply (implies) if and only if maps to

The Kronecker symbol is given by

The characteristic function of a set is defined as

For the factorial is defined as The absolute value of a number is indicated as . If

If its complex conjugate is denoted by and